# How to Calculate GPA and CGPA

As a fresher in the university, you need to learn how to calculate your GPA and CGPA. GPA means Grade Point Average while CGPA means Cumulative Grade Point Average. They are both assessment tools used to evaluate your academic performance for the duration of your study in a higher institution (university, polytechnic or college of education).

Table of Contents

### When are GPA and CGPA Calculated?

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Your GPA is calculated at the end of each semester. GPA is the sum of your scores for each course at the end of each semester. You can calculate it by tracking your result in each course at the end of every semester.

CGPA is usually calculated in your final year though it can be known at any time. CGPA is the total of all your course grades at the end of your degree. If you score a good GPA at the end of each system, it means your overall CGPA will be good too. This is what determines your overall grade upon graduation; 1st Class, 2nd Class Upper, 2nd Class Lower or 3rd Class. You can calculate it by compiling your GPA for each semester and measuring the cumulative.

So, in this article, we will share a detailed breakdown of how to calculate your GPA and CGPA, especially for those in the university, colleges, and polytechnics. It’s time to do some maths. Keep your pen and calculator handy.

Before we go on, we have built a robust GPA calculator that caters to any kind of university grading system in the world. You may not bother reading this lengthy article as this calculator does everything for you.

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Now, let’s go into the details of GPA and CGPA calculation using the Nigerian Universities’ grading system as a case study.

### Nigerian Universities Grading System

The grading system in Nigerian universities is regulated by the National Universities Commission. The National Universities Commission (NUC) of Nigeria is a government corporation under the Federal Ministry of Education. The commission oversees the affairs of Nigerian universities to ensure quality higher education.

There are 202 universities approved and accredited by the NUC. They include 49 federal universities, 57 state-owned and 111 privately owned institutions. Before applying to any university in Nigeria, you must verify if it is approved by the NUC.

According to the NUC, the overall academic performance of a student enrolled in a bachelor’s degree programme is evaluated using a degree classification system. This degree classification is measured in a four-point scale using your CGPA.

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First Class Honours: 4.5 – 5.00

Second Class Honours (Upper Division): 3.5 – 4.49

Second Class Honours (Lower Division): 2.49 – 3.49

Third Class Honours: 1.50 – 2.48

Unfortunately, the pass grade has been eliminated from the grading system. That means that students with a CGPA that is less than 1.0 won’t be awarded a degree.

This grading system doesn’t apply to medical schools or medical courses like Medicine & Surgery, Dentistry and Pharmacy. Instead of the academic Classification method, most medical schools use the Pass-Fail grading system. To get a pass mark, you must score above a specified threshold. Anyone who scores below that threshold fails out of med school.

READ: What GPA Do You Need For an Ivy League Admission?

### Calculating Your GPA at a Nigerian University

In Nigerian universities, your academic performance for each semester is evaluated using your continuous assessment score and end-of-semester examination. Continuous assessment (C.A) consists of Class quizzes, tests, take-home assignments, term papers, seminars, presentations, projects and even attendance at lectures.

Continuous assessment carries 30% of your overall score for each subject (course), while the end-of-semester examination carries 70%.

We believe this is a fair system because your continuous assessment gives you the opportunity to gather marks that you may have lost in the exam. So, you must take your continuous assessment as seriously as your exam.

Every course you offer each semester has a fixed number of Credit Units (CU). Your result for each course is classified into letter grades A, B, C, D,  E and F. Each letter represents a range of marks/scores and these scores represent a particular Grade Point (GP) as seen below.

### Calculating Your GPA in a Nigerian University

Here’s how you can calculate your GPA for each semester:

STEP 1:  First calculate your Quality Points (QP) for each course in a semester.

Quality Points (QP) is obtained by multiplying the Credit Units (CU) of each course by your Grade Point (GP) in that particular course.

Example: Let’s assume you score 65% in a 2-credit unit course. That’s a B with a grade point of 4. Your quality point is Credit Unit (2) × Grade Point (4) = 8

STEP 2: Now, add your Total Quality Points (TQP) in that semester and divide it by the Total Credit Units (TCU) of all the courses in that semester.

Example: Let’s assume the courses you are offering in the first semester of your 2nd year are 18 Credit Units.

From your scores in all the courses, you got a total of 62 quality points.

Divide your Total Quality Points (62) by the Total Credit Units (18).

62 ÷ 18 = 3.44

Therefore, your GPA for the first semester is 3.44.

You can repeat this process for every semester’s result.

### Calculating Your CGPA in a Nigerian University

If you can compile your GPA for each semester throughout your four-year or five-year course at the university, calculating Your CGPA will be easy.

Then, you can calculate your CGPA by adding the Total Quality Points (TQP) for all semesters and dividing them by the Total Credit Units (TCU) for all semesters throughout your duration of study at the university.

A simpler method is to add your GPAs from your first year to your final year and divide them by the number of semesters.

Example: Let’s calculate your CGPA for the first year. Assuming your GPA in the first semester was 3.44 and your GPA in the second semester is 3.22.

Add the figures together: 3.25 + 3.22 = 6.47

Then, divide 6.47 GPA by the number of semesters (2).

6.47 ÷ 2 = 3.24

Therefore, your CGPA for your first year in uni is 3.24.

You can repeat this process for each academic year.

Let’s assume you studied a four-year course. Now, let’s calculate your CGPA for the duration of your study (first year to final year). Simply sum up all your CGPAs for each academic year and divide them by the duration of the course (four years).

Assuming these were your CGPAs from the first year to the final year.

1st Year CGPA = 3.24

2nd Year CGPA = 2.95

3rd Year CGPA = 4.40

4th Year CGPA = 3.84

Thus, your Overall CGPA = (1st Year CGPA + 2nd Year CGPA + 3rd Year CGPA + 4th Year CGPA) ÷ 4 Years

Overall CGPA = (3.24 + 2.95 + 4.40 + 3.84) ÷ 4

Overall CGPA = 14.43 ÷4

Overall CGPA = 3.61

That means you graduated with a CGPA of 3.61 which is 2nd class upper!

### Nigerian Polytechnics Grading System

The method of calculating GPA in Nigerian Polytechnics is like that of the universities. However, there is a distinction in their grading system. Unlike the university, polytechnics do not award degree certificates. Also, the CGPA of polytechnic students is not classified under, 1st Class, 2nd Class or 3rd Class.

Polytechnics award Ordinary National Diploma (OND) and Higher National Diploma (HND). Their grading system is regulated by the National Board of Technical Education (NBTE). NBTE supervises the activities of technical institutions at the secondary, polytechnic and monotechnic levels.

#### Here’s a breakdown of the diploma classification:

Distinction: 3.50 – 4.00

Upper Credit: 3.00 – 3.49

Lower Credit: 2.50 – 2.99

Pass: 2.00 – 2.49

Pass: 0.00 – 1.99

Every course you offer each semester has a fixed number of Credit Units (CU). Your result for each course is classified into letter grades A, AB, B, BC, and C. Each letter represents a range of marks/scores and these scores represent a particular Grade Point (GP) as seen below.

### Calculating Your GPA in Nigerian Polytechnics

Take these simple steps to calculate your GPA for each semester.

STEP 1: First calculate your Quality Points (QP) for each course in a semester.

Quality Points (QP) are obtained by multiplying the Credit Units (CU) of each course by your Grade Point (GP) in that particular course.

Example: Let’s assume you score 72% in a 2-credit unit course. That’s an AB with a grade point of 3.5. Your Quality Point is Credit Unit (2) × Grade Point (3.5) = 7

STEP 2: Add your Quality Points (QP) in that semester to get the Total Points (TP). Then, divide it by the Total Credit Units (TCU) of all the courses in that semester.

Example: Let’s assume the courses you are offering in the first semester of OND1 (first year) are 16 Credit Units.

From your scores in all the courses, you got a total of 52 quality points.

Now, divide your Total Points (52) by the Total Credit Units (16)

52 ÷ 16 = 3.25

Therefore, your GPA for the first semester is 3.25

You can repeat this process for every semester’s result.

### Calculating Your CGPA in a Nigerian Polytechnic

Your CGPA is simply the average of your GPA for the duration of your Diploma Course.

To calculate your CGPA for OND1 (first year), add the GPA for the first semester and second semester. Then, divide the result you get by two (2) which represent the number of semesters.

Example: Let’s assume your GPA for the first semester in OND1 is 3.25 and your GPA for the second semester is 2.45.

Add the figures together: 3.25 + 2.45 = 5. 7

Then, divide 5.7 GPA by the number of semesters (2).

5.7 ÷ 2 = 2.85

Therefore, your CGPA for OND1 (first year) is 2.85

You can repeat this process for every academic year.

### Nigerian Colleges of Education Grading System

The grading system of Colleges of Education is regulated by the National Commission of Colleges of Education (NCCE). Unlike Universities and Polytechnics, you are awarded a Nigeria Certificate of Education (N.C.E) upon graduation.

In Colleges of Education, your continuous assessment (C.A) makes up 40% of your Grade for each subject (course), while the end-of-semester examination carries 60%.

Your certificate of education is graded in this order:

Distinction: 4.50 – 5.00

Credit: 3.50 – 4.40

Merit: 2.40 – 3.49

Pass: 1.50 – 2.39

Low Pass: 1.0 -1.49

Fail: 0.99 and below

### Calculating Your GPA and CGPA in a Nigerian College of Education

Just like in the university, Every course you offer each semester has a fixed number of Credit Units (CU). The credit unit is distributed as follows:

General Studies Courses: 19 Credits

Education Courses: 36 Credits

Teaching Practice: 6 Credits

First Teaching Subject: 38 Credits

Second Teaching Subject: 36-38 Credits

Your result for each course is classified into letter grades A, B, C, D, E and F. Each letter represents a range of marks/scores and these scores represent a particular Grade Point (GP) as seen below.

To calculate your GPA, simply apply the same method for universities and Polytechnics.

1. Multiplying the Credit Units (CU) of each course by your Grade Point (GP) to get your Quality Points (QP) for each course in a semester.

2. Add your Quality Points (QP) in that semester to get the Total Points (TP).

3. Then, divide it by the Total Credit Units (TCU) of all the courses in that semester

To calculate your CGPA, simply sum all your GPAs for each semester and divide it by the sum of the Total Credit Units (TCU) for each semester.

With this detailed explanation and examples, we bet you’ve learnt how to calculate your GPA and CGPA in a Nigerian university. If you’re not a fan of numbers, you can use our Effiko App to calculate your GPA and CGPA with ease.